Who They Gonna Call? Bias at The New York Times on Education Reform

This article was published by CounterPunch in November 2015. It is even more current today. We should update it with a record of who current reporters quote when they claim to talk about public education.

Since this piece was published, a New York Times blogger actually wrote a correction. Note correction was on a blog, not an official correction appearing in the paper that touts “all the news that’s fit to print.” newspaper article.


Here’s the beginning of my CounterPunch piece. I hope people who care about public schools will take it to heart and call our current media to account.

On Sept. 6, 1871, The New York Times published Karl Marx’s obituary,[1] even though Marx was very much alive at that time–and didn’t die for another eleven years. Whether it was obstinacy or wishful thinking, the Times never ran a correction on this item. In more recent times, educators who wondered if they’d live long enough to see a correction on Times fly-by-night education reform claims found small hope in this New York Times official Correction, March 2, 2013:

An article on Friday about New York City’s estimate that it will cost about $56 million to buy new textbooks and other materials to help city public school students meet rigorous Common Core academic standards misidentified the classes in New York State that will take standardized tests in April based on the new standards. It is third through eighth graders, not kindergartners through eighth grade.[2]

Certainly, this glitch doesn’t compare with other Times bloopers that have made it to the Corrections page:

* Walter Cronkite did not storm the D-Day beaches but covered the landing from a warplane

* Congressional candidate Alexander Sacks said “Communist fronts,” not “Communist faggots”

* In “Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard” a spy from an atheist organization fell into a vat of broth, not a monkey or Sampath in the form of a guava.

* An article about drilling for oil off the coast of Angola erroneously reported a story about cows falling from planes, as an example of risks in any engineering endeavor. No cows, smuggled or otherwise, ever fell from a plane into a Japanese fishing rig.

Other corrections have involved misidentifying someone’s My Little Pony character, clarifying just when Gore Vidal had sex with his longtime live-in companion, situating Bermuda in the Caribbean, mistaking longitude for latitude, putting the picture of the wrong catcher in Yogi Berra’s obituary, offering illumination on whether Ahmed Abu Khattala drank a strawberry frappe or mango juice at a luxury hotel, correcting the age of Melania Krauss [Trump] when she posed for a picture in Talk magazine: “She was 29, not 26, making her almost a quarter-century younger than her future husband, not more than a quarter-century younger.”

And so on.

Considering all the Times’ misstatements on Common Core since the June 3, 2010 announcement of the release of the standards, the glitch about K-3 is indeed very small potatoes. But correction of small detail is a critical Times strategy, such repairs serving as opportunistic sly boots, offering reassurance to readers that the paper is meticulous about facts. Get the small trappings right and then maybe nobody will notice the deliberate, obfuscating curtains of distortion and duplicity shrouding what matters. As Renata Adler points out, [3] “the policy of Corrections is a form simultaneously of consolidation of power and of hiding. . . . It is a form of Fundamentalism, it protects the ideology.” With New York Times Common Core coverage, that travels as News is corporate Verdict.

The fact that in Times education coverage, public relations crackerjacks are much more likely to be quoted than pedagogy experts sits in sharp contrast to news presented by the science staff when writing about medical research. Health and science writer (and part of a 2015 Pulitzer Prize team) Pam Belluck explains:[4]

Once we decide it’s worth doing a story, there are several next steps. Besides doing a detailed reading of the study, examining related cancer research and interviewing the researchers and unconnected experts, I’m always interested in talking with real people with relevant experiences.

That last sentence cuts to the core of the problem with the Times coverage of education in general and the Common Core in particular:

* Interviewing researchers

* Interviewing unconnected experts

* Talking with real people with relevant experiences

This has not happened in Common Core coverage.

Let’s start with the June 2010 article announcing release of the Common Core.[5] Longtime reporter and two-time Pulitzer Prize (for writing on Iran-Contra and drug trafficking in Mexico) reporter Sam Dillon declared that “The new standards were written by English and math experts convened last year by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers.” In the ensuing five years, Times staffers repeat this claim again and again, though no experts are named, other than Sue Pimentel. Dillon gives no clarification here. In actuality, Pimentel trained as a lawyer but is a Standardisto’s standardisto. She got her big start in Standards setting with a 1993 grant in from the Walton Family Foundation and was a co-founder of Standards Work. Her close connection with Achieve put her in prime position to write the Common Core standards in language arts.

For the rest of this piece (with 39 footnotes) go to CounterPunch. [link is below: “Open Site in New Window”]

More important: Update this info. Collect the data on how the media covers public education today.

Who gets quoted?

Who’s missing?

Data, data, data.

Who They Gonna Call? Bias at the New York Times on Education Reform



What we can learn from The New York Times football hoax…

“How to Lie with Statistics,” written in 1954, and a standard college text for the introduction to statistics, offers a lot of useful warnings about numbers: Correlation does not imply causation, how statistical graphs can be used to distort reality, and so on. But Morris Newburger, a respected Wall Street broker and avid football fan, went one better.


Newburger may have never believed that there was a Slippery Rock State Teachers College, but, as Bob Busch also notes, there was (and is) one. It’s in the Pennsylvania mountains, and has been there for longer than a century. Which bring us to the classic Chicago reminder (from the City New Bureau): “If your mother says she loves you, check it out!” Forget the Quarterback Sneak: A Deception Play for the Ages , appearing on A1 of the New York Times sports section, January 16, 2016, recounts Newburger’s 1941 football scores hoax. For those of us who care about the way school data is thrown around in the media, Newburger’s hoax has a very modern ring to it: Newspapers reported the numbers without seeing the game.

The story becomes How the Press Gets Duped by Statistics.

Legendary sports writer (who also wrote prize-winning children’s books and co-authored Dick Gregory’s Nigger) Robert Lipsyte wrote about this hoax in the New York Times, September 26, 1968.

A sports fan, Newburger never quite believed all the football scores he read in the newspaper. He never really believed, for example, in the existence of Slippery Rock State Teachers College whose scores were dutifully recorded in the New York Times

And so he came up with the idea of Plainfield Teachers State Teachers College, whose weekly scores he and a friend called in to the papers. Here’s Lipsyte on what happened:

Morris Newburger’s first dupe–and now his wittiest chronicler–was Harold Rosenthal, who is on the staff of the American Football League. On Saturday evening, Oct. 15, 1941, Rosenthal was on the harried sports rewrite desk of The New York Herald Tribune. A man called with a small-college football score: Plainfield Teachers 27, Winona 3.

“Plainfield Teachers, that a New Jersey school?”

“Yes,” said Morris Newburger.

Rosenthal explained years later that it was “not uncommon for the smallest schools to telephone their scores because of a lack of telegraph facilities. Also a number of small schools took up and dropped football continually so it was hard to keep up with them all.

That first Plainfield Teachers College score appeared in The Tribune and in The New York Times.

Energized by this initial success, Newburger kept calling in weekly scores — and he began issuing press releases on Plainfield Teachers College letterhead — extolling the talents of Johnny Chung, a 6-foot-3, 212-pound halfback who was half-Chinese, half-Hawaiian who ate wild rice at halftime.

Soon, newspapers went beyond reporting the weekly scores. Columnists began writing about the team — and about Johnny Chung.

The obvious parallel these days is the hoo-ha invented about schools. How many classrooms have members of the New York Times editorial board visited? For how many minutes?

How about Thomas Friedman?

David Brooks?

Frank Bruni?

But they can all tell you about the public school equivalent of 6-foot-3, 212-pound Johnny Chung eating wild rice at halftime.

Beware of numbers traveling as solutions. . . or even as descriptors.



Our US Department of Education:

Yours and Mine? Or Theirs?

Here is the mission of the U. S. Department of Education (from their website):

Our mission is to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access.

How many teachers go into the classroom each day with the goal of getting their students ready to be global competitive?

Instant Aptitude Test

Take this quick quiz to find out if you are prepared to work in a classroom, in the office of the U. S. Secretary of Education, or at the Business Roundtable in cooperation with the Aspen Institute.

  1. Lesson plans

a) are subject to instant change.

b) are a necessary guide to global competitiveness.

c) are a necessary guide to global competitiveness.

2. A parking place

a) should be ensured by contract, grievance procedures, and arbitration.

b) cannot be assigned without first completing a critical impact study of the neighborhood, its constituents, and its corporate overlay.

c) is evidence of federal overfunding of schools. Let them walk.

3. Phones

a) are necessary to contact parents and the American Civil Liberties Union.

b) are necessary for sending status memos to the media.

b. are necessary to contact Dial-a-Joke, Dial-a-Prayer, Off-track Betting

4. Pencils

a) are an endangered species.

b) must be ordered every April.

c) must not be purchased with federal funds, it being the provenance and privilege of every parent to exercise his/her/their inalienable privilege to provide her/his/their children with the writing implement of her/his/their choice.

5. Hallways

a) are where kids figure out how important things work.

b) are dens of iniquity that could be tamed if teachers would exercise their professional duty and patrol them.

c) should be returned to the hallowed state in which our forefathers founded them.

6. Sex Education

a) means explaining to an 8-year-old how people get sexually transmitted diseases.

b) means confiscating condoms.

c) is the provenance of parents and religious leaders.

7. Students opportunities to grow up to be good citizens are enhanced by

a) owning and enjoying books along with adequate housing and parents earning living wages.

b) scoring above the national norm on standardized achievement tests.

c) teachers who do their jobs.

8. Chastity, Cincinnatus, Clemens are an example of

a) alphabetical order.

b) things that provoke ulcers.

c) choice, content, and character education to build productive citizens.

9. The three basic components of education are

a) the kids, the teacher, and the books.

b) district goals, curriculum objectives for each grade, and evaluation procedures.

c) content, character, and competitiveness.

10. Things that must be taught:

a) reading and math

b) a nationally agreed-upon scope and sequence of necessary skills.

c) a direct line to character and competitiveness.

Volume 2—2021
Roadmap to Reopening Safely and Meeting All Students’ Needs

I grieve for what has happened to classrooms across America, and more than mulishness has kept me dissecting this bizarre flimflam from the U.S. Department of education. I stuck with this ugly task because, seasoned as I am with ugly Federal assaults on public schools, I am overcome with renewed fury as I review this latest Federal offensive against teachers, parents, and kids. ED COVOID-19 HANDBOOK Roadmap to Reopening Safely and Meeting All Students’ Needs is filled with blather common to bureaucracies: ritual, dogma, self-perpetuation, but the inadequacies of this document are particularly glaring: You don’t hear from teachers or parents in this document: You hear from the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Wallace Foundation. And worse. Read on to see just how much worse.
      A note about format: The bulleted terms you see below are items highlighted in the DOE’s Ed Covoid-19 Handbook, known hereafter as The Handbook. There, you hit on the highlighted term and you’re jumped to the source material.  Fine and dandy. But click “return,” and you’ll end up back at the beginning of The Handbook. This gets increasingly frustrating, and by the time you get to page 8 or so, you’ll remember to write down The Handbook page number before hitting on the highlighted term.  For reader sanity, I’ve bulleted each Federally highlighted item, provided the source as well as a very brief summary of the content. Info on staff and funding is added where relevant. And the smarmimess of the Good Folks Network is often relevant.
      Read carefully below and you will see who has the ear of the current U.S. Department of Education, which translates into Money in the Pocket. To continue getting along, you have to know how to go along, to provide what’s wanted.  The ubiquity of certain influential figures is somewhat hidden by the fact that the document has endnotes but no bibliography. But make no mistake: Great puffery is given to lots of federal agencies, so the reader will see how important they are, and there is definitely a Queen Bee with her own team ready to offer advice. Stop and think about the vital voices  not heard from.   
    No mention of Defending the Early Years: Supporting the Rights and Needs of Young Children. Instead, we get McKenzie Global Management: Making Stakeholder Capitalism Work. McKinsey, the outfit paying  nearly $600 million in settlements over its work with opioid companies, former employer of David Coleman of Common Core infamy. 
     There is one citation from the National Association of Secondary School Principals, an article by the Montana Principal of the Year, warning about keeping students “on track,”  one from the University of Chicago: Freshman On-Track Toolkit, and one from  Teaching Young Children, advising parents on getting ready for kindergarten. 
     Programs at a few  universities are mentioned: Teachers College: Equitable Acceleration for Students; Boston College: City Connects program: Portland State University: National Wrap Around Institute; Georgetown University McCourt School of Public Policy School Spending Data Hub. University of Florida offers CEEDAR Center, which partners with AIR (American Institute for Research),  Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and 22 states. Native American Collaborative is one of 19 Regional Comprehensive Centers and state, regional, and local education agencies and its publication comes with the usual Legal Disclaimer [see below].
    One teacher union publication is mentioned, AFT’s 2002  “Attracting Well-Qualified Teachers to Struggling Schools.” There is no word from teacher professional organizations. And few from the media: The Washington Post on Asian student reluctance to go to school during COVID, the New York Times on Black reluctance; Education Week on racial equality; US News on poverty schools getting less funding; CNBC notes more teachers planning to quit.
     That’s it for what the media cares about.
     Actual teachers are rarely mentioned and then, only if they are doing something with computers. We learn that an Apple Distinguished Educator and  Google Certified Innovator in Allentown, Pa, is co-author of Hacking Project-Based Learning.  A tech high school in New York City is featured; Michigan offers a teacher self-assessment tool and personalized PD playlist generator; Nevada  has the Statewide Collaborative for Digital Learning Resources and a plan for “standards-aligned curriculum resources to support face-to-face and blended learning in your classrooms.”
      Do you notice a pattern here? 
     Of note: The Nevada Collaborative provides a link to Georgia Virtual Learning whose digital plan for To Kill a Mockingbird has to be seen to be believed.  [For a snippet, see below. Have your gag bag ready.]
      The Wyoming Department of Education offers a Digital Learning Plan; the Tennessee Department of Education presents Winter Bootcamp  ELA Grades 3-8 and ELA Math Science Winter Foundations Bootcamp PBS. 
        Not school as children’s garden, self-direct learning center, opportunity zone…but school as bootcamp. 
       The Virginia DOE virturally convened a 120-member three day Task Force to create the recommendations for a document about the immediate needs of administrators and teachers in supporting students.  The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education has launched Influence 100  to increase the racial and ethnic diversity of superintendents in Massachusetts, create more culturally responsive districts and leaders across the state, and promote better outcomes for students. Here’s Connecticut’s promise: “Making sure they learn what they need to know to succeed in college, career, and life.” The state also offers “learn how to earn your license and find a path to teaching that’s as unique as you are…Everything you need to become a teacher In one place—for free.”  Everything you need to know sounds like a phrase right out of The Handbook.

    Brookings warns that the diversity gap for public school teachers is growing; McKinsey Public & Social Sector offers dire predictions about learning loss; the Wallace Foundation brings us “Strong Principals,” and Ed Trust opines on “Teachers of Color.” Learning Policy Institute offers “Marin County: Leveraging Education and Public Health Partnerships to Support School Reopening” as well as nine other pieces on various topics. WestEd has “Self-Care Strategies for Educators During the Coronavirus Crisis: Supporting Personal Social and Emotional Well-Being,” “Protecting School Staff” from the Centers for Disease Control.
     Your tax dollars are at work: Proclamations from U.S. Government agencies are multitudinous: US Department of Agriculture has numerous citations, as does the What Works Clearinghouse. Other agency citations include: AIR, CDC, DODEA, IES, NBER, NCEE, NCES, OESE, OSEP, Best Practices Clearinghouse. One of my favorites is a recommendation from NAEP:   “1: Local governments (e.g., county, city) should establish a quality management system (QMS) to identify and provide positive developmental summertime experiences for children and youth, experiences that advance academic learning, improve health and well-being, and promote safety and social and emotional development.
    Could’ve. Would’ve. Should’ve.
    Know this: the Feds don’t even stand by their own words. If you go to the agencies whose programs and promises  cited in this document and read the small print, you’ll find some form of this Legal Disclaimer:
“This document contains resources that are provided for the user’s convenience….The opinions expressed in any of these materials do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of ED….ED does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness or completeness of any outside information included in these materials. For the reader’s convenience, this posting contains examples of potentially useful products, including applications, as well as methodologies used by states and localities. Inclusion of such information does not constitute an endorsement by ED or a preference for these examples as compared with others that might be available….Additionally, this should not imply an endorsement os an organization, curriculum, or learning model.”

        Phew! That’s quite a disclaimer on a document purporting to guide the safety of America’s public schoolchildren: We’ll guide you, but you’re on your own to figure things out. In their favor, it might mean that maybe  they don’t stand behind those things Georgia wants kids do when they read To Kill  a Mockingbird. 
      The Handbook ends with federal resources highlighted, taking us to MHTTC Mental Health Technology Transfer Center: funded by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, who tell us “Addressing the mental health impact on students, parents, teachers and school personnel has become more important and necessary than ever before.”
      What’s the media’s take on all this? I haven’t found any newspaper mention of The Handbook: Nothing in San Francisco Chronicle, Denver Post, Boston Globe, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Chicago Tribune, Miami Herald, USA Today, Washington Post. Nothing.  When I entered “US Department of Education Handbook” at The New York Times search, I got: Gromyko Handbook, Brownies’ Handbook, Guerilla Handbook, Reich Navy Handbook, Aircraft Propelier Handbook, Voter’s Handbook.” 
    Clearly, we are in desperate need of an Education Guerilla Handbook.  
     If you choose not to fight you may well find yourself a victim of the USDOE engagement in a Kafkaesque reshaping of teachers: “One morning, when the teacher followed plagued-filled directives, she found herself transformed in her classroom into a horrible vermin.”
   You can’t really understand public education by sitting at a desk–or going online–and fiddling with numbers. The classroom is a knowable place, but you have to be willing to plunge into its every chaos, be willing to abandon wishful thinking and stand up to bureaucractic pompositiy and corporate greed.  We must fight what the U.S. Department of Education is doing to public education, But to engage in the fight we need to understand the issues. The document below is a place to start.  I hope someone smart will write about the realpolitik of this ugly document, but meanwhile, this assault on our schools must not pass in silence. Surely, with Biden’s plan to more than double the Department of Education annual budget, the time is critical to keep our eyes open. Please read on and join the fight!–Susan Ohanian

Handbook to Reopening Safely and
Meeting All Students’ Needs

  • exacerbate
    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exacerbated existing inequities
    This piece originally appeared in Techcrunch
    Brookings brings together more than 300 leading experts.
    Dramatic inequities in technology access and utilization. Not everyone has the high-speed broadband required for online education, telemedicine and online shopping. The Federal Communications Commission has estimated it would take $40 billion to close the bulk of the broadband gap. But many people also lack laptops, notebooks, smartphones or electronic devices that allow them to stream videos and take advantage of new modes of service delivery…. These types of inequities are intolerable injustices that create nearly insoluble gaps with serious social and economic consequences.
  • more damaging impact                                                                                                                                         Why are some racial and ethnic minority groups disproportionately affected by COVID-19
  • American Rescue Plan Act of 2021                                                                                                                        One Hundred Seventeenth Congress of the United States of America
  • Executive Order 14000 Supporting the Reopening and Continuing Operation of Schools and Early Childhood Education Providers                                                                                                                                                  By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, to ensure that students receive a high-quality education during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and to support the safe reopening and continued operation of schools, child care providers, Head Start programs, and institutions…
  • Volume 1 Strategies for Safely Reopening Elementary and Secondary Schools
  • Operational Strategy for K-12 Schools through Phased Prevention
    summary of recent changes…
  • (LGBTQ+) students
    The Trevor Project is the world’s largest suicide prevention and crisis intervention organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, & questioning (LGBTQ) young people.
  • disproportionate burden
    Why are some racial and ethnic minority groups disproportionately affected by COVID-19?                                     Volume 2: Roadmap to Reopening Safely and Meeting All Students’ Needs is intended to offer initial strategies for providing equitable and adequate educational opportunities that address the impact of COVID-19 on students, educators, and staff, focusing on evidence-based strategies…
  • Come Together
  • Building community, spreading kindness and connecting in our community and schools… We are excited to create a space to enjoy a meal together and join a conversation in circle that is topic specific
    NOTE: At this point in the document there is a LEGAL REQUIREMENT, which includes “Other than statutory and regulatory requirements referenced in the document, the contents of this volume do not have the force or effect of law and do not bind the public and school communities. This document is intended only to provide clarity regarding existing requirements under the law or agency policies… This is followed by LEGAL DISCLAIMER, a repeat of the one in Vol. 1 (see above).
  • Office for Civil Rights
    to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence through vigorous enforcement of civil rights in our nation’s schools.
  • U.S. Department of Education’s Covid-19 Resources for Schools, Students, and Families
    Please send questions on which the Department can be helpful to: COVID-19@ed.gov.
    What’s New!  [every one of these has a url in the original]
    • American Rescue Plan (ARP)
    • ED COVID-19 Handbook Volume 2: Roadmap to Reopening Schools Safely and Meeting All Students’ Needs (April 9, 2021)
    • ED COVID-19 Handbook Volume 1: Strategies for Safely Reopening Elementary and Secondary Schools (February 12, 2021)
    • Addendum to Fact Sheet: Providing Services to English Learners During the COVID-19 Outbreak (January 19, 2021)
    • Fact Sheet: State-Administered Programs under the ESEA and the Nationwide Waiver from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to Allow Meal Pattern Flexibility in the Summer Food Service Program and the National School Lunch Program Seamless Summer Option through June 2021 (January 4, 2021)
    • Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) Fund
    • Governors’ Emergency Education Relief (GEER) Fund
    • Higher Education Emergency Relief (HEER) Fund
  • basic need      Issue Brief: Trust for America’s Health
  • as many as half                                                                                                                                                    School Nutrition…CDC recommends that schools implement policies and practices to create a nutrition environment that supports students in making healthy choices.
  • flexibility and waivers
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture
    The American Rescue Plan provides $12.5 billion to reduce food insecurity caused by the pandemic
  • “grab and go”       
    Grab-and-go and drive-up allow families to pick up food at closed California schools…
  • Child Nutrition Programs: COVID-19 Waivers by State
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture
    Select from the following list to see all of the COVID-19 waivers issued for your state in child nutrition programs.
  • online resources
     Distributing school meals
  • Safely Distributing School Meals During COVID-19
    CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, school nutrition programs have developed innovative ways to ensure in-person, virtual, and hybrid learners continue to have access to safe and nutritious meals.
  • meals during the summer
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) today announced the nationwide extension of several waivers that allow all children to continue to receive nutritious meals this summer when schools are out of session.
  • expanding the  Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (P-EBT) program
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture… The Families First Coronavirus Response Act of 2020 (PL 116–127), as amended by the Continuing Appropriations Act 2021 and Other Extensions Act (PL 116-159), provides the Secretary of Agriculture authority to approve state agency plans to administer P-EBT.
  • safety protocols in food distribution
    CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    4 steps to food safety
  • after school programs
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture
    When school is out and parents are still at work, children need a safe place to be with their friends, with structured activities, supportive adults, and good nutrition. Afterschool programs that participate in CACFP give children and teenagers the nutrition they need, and draw them into constructive activities that are safe, fun, and filled with opportunities for learning.
  • summer food programs
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture
    How to Participate in Summer Meals
  • P-EBT
     Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agricultur
    Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (P-EBT) is part of the U.S. government response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act of 2020 (PL 116–127), as amended by the Continuing Appropriations Act 2021 and Other Extensions Act (PL 116-159), provides the Secretary of Agriculture authority to approve state agency plans to administer P-EBT.
  • Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACF
    Food and Nutrition Service US Department of Agriculture…
     Ensuring Children and Adults Have Access to Nutritious Meals and Snacks
  • information
    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE
    This brief is designed for state and local child nutrition program administrators, cafeteria managers, State Coordinators for Homeless Education, and local homeless education liaisons
  • science of learning
  • Science of Learning and Development Alliance
    Leadership includes: Pamela Cantor,MD., Founder and Senior Science Advisor, Turnaround for Children; former Assistant Clinical Professor of Child Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine
    Team member: Linda Darling-Hammond
    Advisory Committee includes: John King, President and CEO, Education Trust; Shael Suransky, President, Bank Street College; Ross Wiener, Vice President & Executive Director, Aspen Institute Education & Society Program; Carey Wright, State Superintentend Mississippi Department of Education
  • resources
    California Department of Education: Asset-Based Pedagogies: Asset-Based Pedagogies focus on the strengths that diverse students bring to the classroom. It is a direct response to deficit-based models to education of the past.
  • Explicitly teaching critical social, emotional, and academic skills
    CASEL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning  Social and emotional competencies can be taught, modeled, and practiced and lead to positive student outcomes that are important for success in school and in life.
    Board Chair: Timothy Shriver, chair Special Olympics;
    Board Emeritus includes: Linda Darling-Hammond; chief funders include good guys & bad guys https://casel.org/funders
    Research Advisory Group includes Linda Darling-Hammond
  • MTSS framework
    Understood   A number of leaders, including the chair of the board are associated with Riverview School (where her son attended). Riverview is a private school that describes itself as a leader in educating students with complex language and learning challenges, and they specifically state: “Students demonstrating a history of emotional, behavioral, psychiatric disorders, or requiring a therapeutic environment, are not able to be considered.”   
                  School Year (Day) 2021/2022   $55,183
                  School Year (Residential) 2021-2011   $94,690
  • Positive behavioral  interventions and supports
    Center on PBIS: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs and Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; initially funded in 1998. [T]he contents [of the website] do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Project Officer, Renee Bradley, BA and MA in special education from the College of Charleston, a Ph.D. in Leadership and Policy, University of South Carolina
  • educator in Allentown, Pennsylvania
    published in k12Dive, operated by Industry Dive, which delivers news and exclusive insights to 11+ million decision-makers in the business world’s most competitive industries…. We help industry marketers reach the right audience with the right message.” In this piece a former 4th grade teacher talks about work with education remained and CONVERGENCE. Apple Distinguished Educator and a Google Certified Innovator. Co-author of Hacking Project-Based Learning: 10 Easy Steps to PBS and Inquiry in the Classroom $17.99
  • Social Justice Humanitas Academy
    Greater Good Science Center, University of California, Berkeley
    See partners
  • culturally responsive practices
    Committee for Children
    Supporting Racial Equity with Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and SEL, Jordan Posamentier, Sept 1, 2020
    The murders of George FloydAhmaud Arbery, and Breonna Taylor, among many others, have dramatically underscored the racial injustices within our country’s systems. Throughout history, race equity has been an issue intertwined in our education system in a multitude of ways. We’re committed to improving specific issues related to our priority areas—social-emotional learning (SEL)child protection, and bullying prevention—that disproportionately impact the Black community and communities of color. 
  • intentional conversations related to race and emotional learning
    Guide for Racial Justice & Abolitionist Social and Emotional Learning
    Abolitionist Teaching Network staff
    Resources for Agitators
  • implement restorative circles
    George Lucas Foundation
    Edutopia Board of Directors
  • New York state issued reopening guidance
  • LGBTQ+
    (formerly FindYouthInfo.gov) was created by the Interagency Working Group on Youth Programs (IWGYP), which is composed of representaties from 22 federal agencies that support programs and services focusing on youth. https://youth.gov/collaboration-profiles
  • more likely than others to be homeless
    National Alliance to End Homelessness
  • Oakland, California
    EdSource staff
    Among board members: Dan Shalvey: CEO, San Joaquin A+, former deputy director in the education program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. While superintendent of the San Carlos School District, Shalvey sponsored the first charter school in California and then co-founded Aspire Charter Schools.
    Major Donors
  • Ohio Department of Education 
    website labeled ‘not secure’                                                                                                                              McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth program
    U.S. Department of Education: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education:Education for Homeless Children and Youths
  • Migrant Education Program

            Title 1, part C State Grants

                 Application information….  [emphasis in original]

  • City Year
    Jared Billings, vice-president and executive director, Orlando; formerly program director, Education Division National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center). executive director of Teach Plus Mid-Atlantic    Darryl Bundridge: vice-president and executive director, Philadelphia; formerly Dean of Students for Belmont Charter School
    Board of Trustees 
  • Action Community
    City Year
    rolls out new resources for teachers during Covid-19  9/2/2020
    promotes collaborative problem-solving among some of the leaders of the 250 public schoos  served by City Year AmericaCorps members.
  • recent data from NAEP
    National Survey Finds Three-Quarters of Public Schools Open For Full-Time In-Person or Hybrid Instruction
  • academic achievement
    New evidence shows that the shutdowns caused by COVID-19 could exacerbate existing achievement gaps
    McKinsey Public & Social Sector                                                                                                                             Rima Assi, Senior Partner, helps create sustainable and competitive economies in the Middle East by transforming public finance. She leads McKinsey’s public-finance work in Africa, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East, helping to shape the debate and implement prudent fiscal-resource-management and economic-diversification initiatives. Jacob Bryant, Senior Partner, served as a program officer at Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where he launched and led an investment portfolio in their US education division.                     There’s more

Message from Secretary of Education, Dr. Miguel Cardona
The U.S. Department of Education looks forward to receiving descriptions of what the field has identified as lessons learned and best practices on these topics. These submissions should be sent via email to: Bestpracticesclearinghouse@ed.gov
 American Institutes for Research National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments.                     The contents of the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments Web site were assembled under contracts from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students to the American Institutes for Research (AIR), Contract Numbers ED-ESE-12-O-0035 and ED-ESE-16-A-0002.                                               This Web site is operated and maintained by AIR. The contents of this Web site do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the U.S. Department of Education nor do they imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education.

After reading warning you can download the reference manual, published 2017. which begins with the same above disclaimer. Preferred citation: Yoder, N., Darling-Churchill, K., Colombi, G. D., Ruddy, S., Neiman, S., Chagnon, E., & Mayo, R. (2017). School climate improvement reference manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students.          https://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/sites/default/files/SCIRP/referencemanualwhole.pdf

  • resources on trauma-informed practices                                                                                                                CC Network National Center    All Informed Practice Resources: 23 separate resource links                                This website was developed under a grant from the Department of Education…by the National Comprehensive Center at Westat…disclaimer follows            Westat clients
  • Safer Schools and Campuses Best Practices Clearinghouse
    On January 21, 2021, President Biden issued Executive Order (E.O.) 14000 directing the U.S. Department of Education to create the Safer Schools and Campuses Best Practices Clearinghouse. The Clearinghouse will be a place to highlight lessons from the field in support of students, teachers, faculty, and staff, as schools and campuses continue to reopen following closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic.        E-mail your submissions to them: Bestpracticesclearinghouse@ed.gov.
  • restorative justice resources
    Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools, M
    arch 2019: Trevor Fronius, Sean Darling-Hammond, Hannah Persson,  Sarah Guckenburg, Nancy Hurley, Anthony Petrosino
  • CDC Supported Standards
  • prevention strategies such as air filter and cleaners
  • accelerating learning                                                                                                                                            TNTP: Reimagine Teaching, formerly New Teachers Project                                                                               CEO: Don Weisberg  Board of Directors members’ experiences includes Naional Program Director at Stand for Child and Field Organizer in New Mexico for President Obama’s 2008 campaign, Partner, Bain & Company, Inc., Managing Director of Operations at KIPP Atlanta, All Our Kin, Ingenuity Prep Charter School, Yale School of Management Alumni Advisory Board, Executive Director of Achieve Atlanta, board of Teach for America, New Schools Venture Fund, KIPP Bay Area, co-executive director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation’s education work, National Council of La Raza, PricewaterhouseCoopers
  • rather than tracking or remediation
From Remediation to Acceleration: Early Lessons from Two Philadelphia Back Track Schools, published Oct. 29, 2013  In one year, more than two-thirds of their students progressed two or more grade levels in reading and math
JFF.org “a national nonprofit that drives change in the american workforce and education systems to achieve economic advancement for all.”
  • new instructional strategies
    See “accelerated learning”
  • resource for teaching and learning
    CSSO Council of Chief State School Officers                                                                                                       Restart and Recovery: Considerations for Teaching and Learning Pre-K to 3rd Grade Recovery in School year 2020-2021  published Dec. 17, 2020. This resource aligns closely with the Council’s guidance released in July 2020.4      Executive Director:  Carissa Moffat Miller: Before joining CCSSO in 2013, she was a deputy superintendent at the Idaho State Department of Education and led the implementation of statewide online testing for the Idaho State Board of Education
  • impacted
    National Student Clearinghouse Research Center: High School Benchmarks COVID-19 Special Analysis Update & Correction
    March 2021
    Clearinghouse Staff and Board
  • enhanced college advising
    Institute of Education Sciences
                                                                                                                          National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance  Study of Enhanced College Advising in Upward Bound: Impacts on Steps Toward College, Alina Martinez, Mathematica Policy Research,Tamara Linkow Hannah Miller Amanda Parsad Abt Associates
  • summer bridge programs

        MDRC: BUILDING KNOWLEDGE TO IMPROVE SOCIAL POLICY: Created in 1974 by the Ford Foundation and a  group of federal agencies as the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, “MDRC” became the official name in 2003. We are funded by government agencies and more than 100 private, family, and corporate foundations.  Funders

  • dual enrollment
    Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to take college courses and earn college credits while still attending high school. Such programs, also referred to as dual credit or early college programs, are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education.   The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified five studies of dual enrollment programs that both fall within the scope of the Transition to College topic area and meet WWC group design standards. Two studies meet WWC group design standards without reservations, and three studies meet WWC group design standards with reservations. Together, these studies included 77,249 high school students across the United States. The What Works Clearinghouse is an investment of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) within the U.S. Department of Education that was established in 2002. The work of the WWC is managed by a team of staff at IES and conducted under a set of contracts held by several leading firms with expertise in education, research methodology, and the dissemination of education research.   Here are a couple of the staff:  Jack Buckley, Ph.D: Before joining AIR, Dr. Buckley helped lead the redesign of the SAT at the College Board, where he served as senior vice president of research. He also served as commissioner of ED’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), where he was responsible for the measurement of all aspects of U.S. education, including conducting the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sarah Caverly, Ph.D: Deputy Project Director, 2018 – present; served as the director for three large-scale, IES-funded randomized-controlled trials of reading and math curricula: Open Court Reading, Voyager’s Passport Reading, and Everyday Mathematics.
  • early college high schools
    Evaluating the  Impact of Early College High Schools                                                                                             AIR  American Institutes for Research National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments. States have prioritized college and career readiness as a key goal of high school, reflecting the reality that most jobs require postsecondary education. But many students, particularly those who are low-income and/or of color, lack access to a well-rounded high school education.                                                                                                              Early Colleges are partnerships of school districts, charter management organizations, or high schools, and two- or four-year colleges or universities. A type of dual enrollment program, Early Colleges offer students the opportunity to earn an associate degree or up to two years of college credits toward a bachelor’s degree in high school—at no or low cost to students.
  • research
         Career Ladders Project  and JFF
                                                                                                                      Research on the evolution and current state of dual enrollment policy and practice in California.                         JFF: National nonprofit that drives change in the American workforce and education systems to achieve economic advancement for all. Staff and Board
  • if implemented in particular ways
    The Importance of Getting Tutoring Right: This post is part of Learning Policy Institute’s  Learning in the Time of COVID-19 blog series
    Rather than reviving past attempts–and making the same mistakes–policymakers should look at what works. The literature is clear about the characteristics of effective tutoring programs that lead to success in the classroom….Reading Recovery: A Teacher-Led Intervention for Struggling REaders…Number Rockets and ROOTS: Leveraging Paraprofessionals, Substitutes, Retired Teachers, and Education Students….Match Corps: The Promise of Universal Tutoring.  
    Learning Policy Institute: President and CEO: Linda Darling-Hammond
  •  Accelerate Program     Accelerate Louisiana’s Pre-K-High School Tutoring Strategy                                                          Less than half of Louisiana students demonstrate mastery on third grade and eighth grade content on LEAP 2025 assessments. It is imperative that school systems build a system where all students, including students with disabilities, English learners, and students who persistently struggle, can achieve.

ELA: To accelerate Pre-K-2 students in ELA, teachers must continue to use high-quality curriculum Materials for each grade-level include correlations to in-class lessons, links to Google slide presentations for each tutoring session, links to virtual manipulatives, and Desmos activities when available to focus on reading, understanding, and expressing understanding of text.

Math: Materials for each grade-level include correlations to in-class lessons, links to Google slide presentations for each tutoring session, links to virtual manipulatives, and Desmos activities when available. Consider guidance provided by high-quality curriculum vendors.

  • English Learners
    Peer Tutoring and Response Groups was found to have positive effects on English language development. The students may be grouped by age or ability, or the groups may be mixed. Peer tutoring typically consists of two students assuming the roles of tutor and tutee, or “coach and player” roles. Works Clearinghouse
  • a study
    Not Too Late: Improving Academic Outcomes Among Adolescents
    NBER National Bureau of Economic Research                                                                                                             A key innovation by the non-profit we study (Saga Education) is to identify how to deliver “high-impact tutoring” at relatively low cost ($3,500 to $4,300 per participant per year). This paper was made possible by the generous support of the Abbvie, Bank of America, Laura and John Arnold, Paul M. Angell, Edna McConnell Clark, Crown, Lloyd A. Fry, Joyce, Logan, MacArthur, Polk, Pritzker-Pucker, Smith Richardson, and Spencer foundations, the Chicago Center for Youth Violence Prevention, EquiTrust, JPAL-North America, the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, the city of Chicago, grant number 2012-JU-FX-0019 from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice, and award number 1P01HD076816 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health. We are also grateful for operating grants to the University of Chicago Crime Lab from Susan and Tom Dunn, Ira Handler, and the MacArthur, McCormick and Pritzker-Pucker foundations.    Note: NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peer-reviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official NBER publications.                  Among the people thanked for “making this work possible” is Barbara Byrd Bennett, In n 2012, federal agents began investigating Barbara Byrd-Bennett’s role in a $40 million textbook contract April 2015, Byrd-Bennett took a personal leave as Chicago Public Schools CEO during an investigation. In October 2015, a federal grand jury in Illinois returned a 23-count indictment  and in  2017 she began serving her sentence at Federal Prison Camp, Alderson  in West Virginia. In May 2020, she  was released from prison and placed on home confinement. In the first RCT (“study 1”), our research team randomly assigned 2,633 male youths in summer 2013 who were rising 9th or 10th graders to a treatment group that was offered Saga. 
  • using quizzes                                                                                                                                                         from Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning, IES National Center for Educational Research, Sept. 2007  Harold Pashler (Chair) University of California, San Diego Patrice M. Bain Columbia Middle School, Illinois Brian A. Bottge University of Wisconsin–Madison Arthur Graesser University of Memphis Kenneth Koedinger Carnegie Mellon University Mark McDaniel Washington University in St. Louis Janet Metcalfe Columbia University. This report was prepared for the National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, under contract no. ED-05-CO-0026 to Optimal Solutions Group, LLC. Disclaimer…                                  U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Secretary Institute of Education Sciences Grover J. Whitehurst Director National Center for Education Research Lynn Okagaki Commissioner
RECOMMENDATION 1: Local governments (e.g., county, city) should establish a quality management system (QMS) to identify and provide positive developmental summertime experiences for children and youth, experiences that advance academic learning, improve health and well-being, and promote safety and social and emotional development.
This Consensus Study Report Highlights was prepared by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families based on the Consensus Study Report, Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth (2019). The study was sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Wallace Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Copies of the Consensus Study Report are available from the National Academies Press
  • “A new kind of summer school”
    For four weeks this summer, Oak Park elementary and middle-school students will once again be enjoying a new and exciting type of summer school opportunity created to enhance their study and reading skills while preparing them for the academic year ahead. July 2019. The following article was originally published in the The Storyline’s winter 2018-19 edition as “Empowering all voices means making some noise.”
  • Becoming a Man
    Youth Guidance: Guiding Kids to Bright Futures                                                                                                 Helping boys become men. In 2001, the Becoming A Man (BAM) program was launched BAM launched in Boston in 2017 and  in 2019, expanded to Los Angeles County and King County Washington.in Chicago to help young men navigate difficult circumstances that threaten their future…The randomized controlled trial design of the Crime Lab studies enables researchers to draw causal conclusions about the effects of BAM, and so attribute changes in youth outcomes to participation in BAM.
    University of Chicago Crime Lab Report: 2016
    Chapin Hill Qualitative Report: 2017
    Advisory Council
  • My Brother’s Keeper Alliance
    THE MBK ALLIANCE IMPACT AND SEED COMMUNITIES                                                                                           In 2018 MBK Alliance announced the winners of its inaugural national competition to identify and invest in communities that are making steady progress to substantially improve the lives of boys and young men of color. The winning Impact and Seed communities, as well as MBK Communities to Watch include 19 organizations across 10 states and Puerto Rico as national models to expand evidence-based initiatives to reduce youth violence, grow effective mentorship programs, and measurably improve the lives of boys and young men of color.
  • “Working on Womanhood”
    Youth Guidance: Guiding Kids to Bright Futures
  • Using a Trauma-Informed approach, WOW targets young women with significant risk factors for dropout or delinquency such as: teenage pregnancy, trauma, drug or alcohol abuse, self-harm, gang involvement, fighting, academic failure and discipline referrals. 
    WOW implemented a number of new evaluation tools during the 2014-2015 school year. .. After one year of WOW intervention, 67% of those participants experienced a decrease in depression, with the greatest drop being among those with “moderately severe” or “severe” depression indicators at intake.
  • ourBRIDGE FOR KIDS          
    Providing critical supports to underserved communities during COVID-19                                                      Located in Charlotte, North Carolina, ourBRIDGE for KIDS (ourBRIDGE) is an afterschool program that works with immigrant and refugee students new to the United States. During a typical school year, the program—whose three core pillars are academic support, trauma-informed care, and cultural pride— serves approximately 150 K-8 students. Students in the program represent 22 different cultures; 100 percent qualify for federal free or reduced-price lunch and more than 80 percent are English language learners (ELL). In response to North Carolina’s stay-at-home orders and school closures, as well as communications with their families, ourBRIDGE paused in-person service and turned its attention to delivering meals to families experiencing food insecurity, liaising between schools and families, and serving as an advocate for families facing challenges created by the pandemic.  AfterSchool Alliance  Website not secure
    To expand support for quality afterschool programs, the Afterschool Alliance works with agencies, elected officials, business, 50 state afterschool networks, community leaders, and program providers across the nation. We’re in touch with more than 25,000 afterschool program partners and our publications reach more than 65,000 interested individuals every month.               Funders
  • career and technical programs            ACTE  Accociation for Career & Technical Education: HIGH-QUALITY CTE: PLANNING FOR A COVID-19-IMPACTED SCHOOL YEAR   is a guide for helping CTE stakeholders identify the key considerations, guiding questions and emerging best practices that should shape future planning. The guide is organized around the elements of ACTE’s Quality CTE Program of Study Framework to capture the breadth of issues important to maintaining CTE program quality within any of the possible educational environments being considered for the new school year.  ACTE: Today’s cutting-edge, rigorous and relevant career and technical education (CTE) prepares youth and adults for a wide range of high-wage, high-skill, high-deman careers.             
  • Continuous quality improvement    https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/northeast/pdf/REL_2021014.pdf   A Toolkit for Schools and Districts Oct. 2020      Continuous improvement is based on the principles that making sustainable change takes time and involves collective effort; is context specific; and requires constant adaptation, data collection, and learning (Bessant & Caffyn, 1997; Bhuiyan & Baghel, 2005; Langley, Moen, Nolan, Nolan, & Norman, 2009). Continuous improvement engages key players in a system to focus on a specific problem of practice and, through a series of iterative cycles, identify and test change practices (new approaches, tools, or strategies used to address the problem), make predictions, collect data about the change practices, and study the potential influence of those change practices on outcomes of interest (figure 1; Bryk, Gomez, Grunow, & LeMahieu, 2015). Through these cycles the members of the system build their capacity to test proposed change practices; refine those change practices based on evidence; and increase the scale, scope, and spread of a change practice over time (Langley et al., 2009).

Continuous improvement is premised on three core principles about how sustainable change is achieved: • Change takes time and involves collective effort (Bryk et al., 2015; Katz, Earl, & Jaafar, 2009). • Change is context-specific and therefore requires constant adaptation, data collection, and learning (Bryk et al., 2015). • Focusing on a series of small changes, combined with ongoing evidence collection and review, can lead to large-scale change (Derrick-Mills, Sandstrom, Pettijohn, Fyffe, & Koulish, 2014; Hawley, 2006; Park, Hironaka, Carver, & Nordstrum, 2013; Snow, Dismuke, Zenkert, & Loffer, 2017).
Institute of Education Sciences:      26 handouts
Recommended resources
Bocala, C., Henry, S. F., Mundry, S., & Morgan, C. (2014). Practitioner data use in schools: Workshop toolkit (REL 2015–043). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs. McEwan, E. K., & McEwan, P. J. (2003). Making sense of research: What’s good, what’s not, and how to tell the difference. Corwin Press. Popham, W. J. (2010). Everything school leaders need to know about assessment. Corwin Press
This report was prepared for the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) under Contract ED-IES-17-C-0011 by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands administered by Education Development Center, Inc. The content of the publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of IES or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  • report
    K–12 Student Digital Divide Much Larger Than Previously Estimated and Affects Teachers, Too, New Analysis Shows
    Southern states have largest divides, but even among states with smallest divides, 25% of students lack adequate internet connection.
    Common Sense Media:  Reviews for what your kids want to watch (before they watch it). Trusted ratings created with families in mind.
    Common Sense is the nation’s leading nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives of all kids and families by providing the trustworthy information, education, and independent voice they need to thrive in the 21st century. Common Sense research gives parents, educators, health organizations, and policymakers reliable, independent data on children’s use of media and technology. Learn more at https://www.commonsense.org
  • needs assessments
    A step-by-step guide to help school districts identify students who lack a home Internet connection or a dedicated learning device. Identifying unconnected students is the first step in delivering remote learning to all students this school year. Below you’ll find free tools, templates, and best practices to help you get started.
    Education Superhighway
    EducationSuperHighway was founded in 2012 with the mission of upgrading the Internet access in every public school classroom in America. EducationSuperHighway is funded by national philanthropic organizations including the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Salesforce Foundation, and our mission is supported by governors in all 50 states and America’s leading CEOs. Having completed its mission, EducationSuperHighway will sunset Fall 2020.
  • standards
                ISTE Stands for Students
    Today’s students must be prepared to thrive in a constantly evolving technological landscape. The ISTE Standards for Students are designed to empower student voice and ensure that learning is a student-driven process. Connect with other educators in the ISTE Standards Community and learn how to use the standards in the classroom with the ISTE Standards for Students ebook.
    Digital Learning Pathways
    Designed by Metiri and The International Society for Technology in Education, Digital Learning Pathways are a collection of online professional development resources that empower teachers, schools and districts to create authentic, digital-age learning experiences by unpacking and implementing the ISTE Standards for Students.
    Maximize your learning with our 3-resource bundle and save!
    Metiri: A sample of our clients include:
    ISTE: YEAR-ROUND MISSION SPONSORS: Microsoft  * kaltura.  Recent ISTE grant programs include a learning science initiative (2018–2019) funded by the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation, an artificial intelligence explorations program (2018–2019) funded by GM, an educational technology initiative focused on retail and workforce development funded by Walmart, a 2018 open education resources initiative funded by Hewlett Foundation, and a collaboration on future-ready librarianship funded by Follet
  • Digital Learning Plan
    Wyoming’s Digital Learning Plan
    Wyoming Department of Education  Opportunity Through Education
    The Digital Learning Day website includes links for educators to share their classroom digital learning resources and to explore resources provided by others. In recognition of Digital Learning Day 2021, the WDE invites Wyoming educators to explore the resources available and consider posting some of their own. Among the resources available, there are digital learning guides provided by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology.
  • research
                Using Technology to Support At-Risk Students’ Learning  Sept. 2014
                Linda Darling-Hammond, Molly B. Zielezinski, and Shelley Goldman
                SCOPE Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education
                Alliance for Excellent Education
    The brief  outlines policy strategies that could expand the uses of technology for at-risk high school youth.
  • school librarians
    Future Ready Schools: helps innovative educators ensure that each student graduates from high school with the agency, passion, and skills to be a productive, successful, and responsible citizen.Future Ready Schools is a project of the Alliance for Excellent Education
    Deborah Delisle, President & CEO; former CEO of ASCD,  U.S. assistant secretary of elementary and secondary education from 2012 to 2015; senior fellow at the International Center for Leadership in Education (ICLE); former Ohio superintendent of public instruction and superintendent of the Cleveland Heights–University Heights (Ohio) City School District.
                    Funders: Click on this & link goes to “Page does not exist.”
  • video
    Edutopia When educators at a Washington, DC, high school ditched their lectures and devised a self-paced blended learning model, their students thrived.
                    A Student-Centered Model of Blended Learning May 9, 2019
  • using technology                                                                                                                                                Aurora InstituteIt Starts with Pedagogy: How Lindsay Unified is Integrating Blended Learning                     After 17 years of driving educational change under the names NACOL and iNACOL, the time has come to create a forward-reaching identity that reflects all of who we are and all of what we do. Our resources guide practitioners, educators, policymakers, and advocates seeking to shift from our current state of education to a future state in which all students are prepared to succeed…As a hub for innovators across education, our work examines the needs for transformational change in K-12 systems, promotes best practices, identifies policy barriers, and makes recommendations for change. Together, we work to achieve a bold, future-focused vision of education through state and federal policy advocacy, field-building and knowledge creation, and connecting and convening.      Board of Directors

Chicago Connected is a partnership program between the City of Chicago, Chicago Public Schools, the philanthropic community, and community organizations. This program would not be possible without the generous support of:

   *Ken Griffin, Philanthropist and CEO of Citade
   *Crown Family Philanthropies
   *Chicago Community COVID-19 Response Fund
   *Illinois Tool Works 
   *Pritzker Traubert Foundation
   *JPB Foundation
   *The Chicago Community Trust 
   *The Joyce Foundation
   *MacArthur Foundation 
   *President Barack Obama and Mrs. Michelle Obama
   *Children’s First Fund
   *Kids First Chicago
   *United Way of Metro Chicago

  • to support English Learners
    Migration Policy Institute
                                                                                                                                    National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
    The ongoing public-health crisis is likely to result in the widening of already significant opportunity and achievement gaps.
  • disability law
    U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil RightsTechnical Accessibility                                 Guidance on Use of Electronic Book Readers and Other Emerging Technologies (Follow-Up to 2010 Guidance) March 26, 2011
  • Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access                               UCLA IDEA
    Learning Lessons: U.S. Public High Schools and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spring 2020 examines the response of America’s high schools to COVID 19 Sept 2020
  • provide information
    Learning Policy Institute
    Advancing Educational Equity for Underserved Youth: How New State Accountability Systems Can Support School Inclusion and Student Success  Feb. 23, 2017,  Jessica Cardichon, Linda Darling-Hammond
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy
    U.S. Department of Education: https://studentprivacy.ed.gov/
                A Service of the Privacy Technical Assistance Center and the Student Privacy Policy Office
                The U.S. Department of Education is committed to protecting student privacy. 
  • risk behaviors
      CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention
    Adolescent and School Health: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of health-related behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults
  • racial equity                                                                                                                                                                 6 Ways District Leaders Can Build Racial Equity,  Christina A. Samuel   Education Week, June 18,2020
  • early warning indicator (EWI) systems
    mdrc: Building Knowledge to Improve Social Policy  June 2016
    ADDRESSING EARLY WARNING INDICATORS Interim Impact Findings from the Investing in Innovation (i3) Evaluation of DIPLOMAS NOW
    William Corrin Susan Sepanik Rachel Rosen Andrea Shane
    Funding for this report came from the U.S. Department of Education under its Investing in Innovation (i3) initiative. The i3 grant called for Diplomas Now to expand its whole-school reform initiative and for MDRC and ICF International to conduct an independent evaluation of the implementation and impacts of the reform. Matching grants were also provided by the PepsiCo Foundation and Ballmer Family Giving.
    In addition, earnings from the MDRC Endowment help sustain our dissemination efforts. Contributors to the MDRC Endowment include Alcoa Foundation, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, Anheuser-Busch Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The Grable Foundation, The Lizabeth and Frank Newman Charitable Foundation, The New York Times Company Foundation, Jan Nicholson, Paul H. O’Neill Charitable Foundation, John S. Reed, Sandler Foundation, and The Stupski Family Fund, as well as other individual contributors.
    Diplomas Now did not have a statistically significant impact on the percentage of students meeting a more stringent threshold suggestive of a more stable educational trajectory: better than 90 percent attendance, no suspensions or expulsions, and passing all four core subject areas of English/language arts, math, social studies, and science. See document for more…
  • strengthen a school’s importance
    NASSP National Association of Secondary School Principals
    Hendrickson, principal, St. Ignatius High School, St. Ignatius, MT, 2020 Montana Principal of the Year. 
  • from pre-school
     NAEYC: Teaching Young Children April/May 2013 Transitions to Kindergarten, Marie Kielty, Angele Sancho Passe, Sherrie Rose Mayle
    Preschool teachers want the children in their classrooms to be ready for kindergarten. In this article, we’ll give you some tips to help children prepare.
  • on-track indicators
              Freshman on-track toolkit  : The Toolkit provides your school or district with valuable information on how to develop   educator teams that are focused on research, data, and successful practices to help freshmen succeed.
                Network for College Success
                The University of Chicago
                Crown Family School of Social Work, Policy, and Practice
                Advancing a More Just and Humane Society
          Supporters and Partners
  • parent portals
    DQC Data Quality Campaign
    Education Leaders Must Not Be Data Gatekeepers
    Parent Portals Are a Key COVID-19 Recovery Strategy
    States and Districts Can Learn from Leaders Already Doing the Work
    YES Prep Public Schools, a charter network whose student population is 97 percent African American and Hispanic and 89 percent economicallydisadvantaged, is committed to sharing actionable data with parents and students….
    Leaders in Rhode Island’s Providence Public Schools are working to get data into the hands of parents…. Georgia delivers student-level longitudinal data from the state data system directly to each district’s SIS, enabling administrators, principals,teachers, and parents to access a richer set of data through their existing local portal….
    The Data Quality Campaign was founded by 14 partner organizations as a national campaign to improve the quality, accessibility and use of data in education. These Managing Partners helped launch DQC through their expressed commitment to helping policymakers to build, support and use state longitudinal data systems:
    Achieve, Inc,
    Alliance for Excellent Education
    Council of Chief State School officers
    Education Commission of the States
    The Education Trust
    National Association of State Boards of Education
    National Center for Educational Accountability
    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems
    National Conference of State Legislatures
    National Governors Association Center for Best Pracstices
    School Interoperability Framework Association
    Standard & Poor’s School Evaluation Services
    State Education Technology Directors Association
    State Higher Education Executive Officers
  • Continuous Improvement in Education
    NCES  Continuous Improvement in Education: A Toolkit for Schools and Districts Oct. 2020
    Karen Shakman, Diana Wogan, Sheila Rodriguez, Jared Boyce, and Debra Shaver
  • Afforded fewer resources
    BEST STATES: In Most States, Poorest School districts Get Less Funding
    U.S. News, Lauren Camera, Feb. 27, 2018
    In more than half of the states in the U.S., the poorest school districts do not receive funding to address their students’ increased needs – just the latest data point to shine a spotlight on funding gaps that plague the country’s public education system.
  • Dimensions of resource equity
        Alliance for Resource Equity
       Partners:   Education Resource Strategies          The Education Trust     
    Our framework includes 10 dimensions to equip you — in partnership with other education leaders and advocates — with a foundation for unlocking better, more equitable school experiences for children in your community.
  • Long-standing gaps in educational opportunity


Oct. 5, 2014

Sixty years ago the Supreme Court famously declared in Brown v. Board of Education that education “is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.”1 Today, I write to call your attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help you address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin.* This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic….

* This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin, in programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance. 42 U.S.C. § 2000d, et seq. See also 34 C.F.R. Part 100 (implementing regulations). The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) also enforces statutes that prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex and disability, and under which recipients of Federal financial assistance have similar responsibilities regarding the obligation to provide comparable educational resources to all students without regard to their sex or disability. 20 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq. (sex), 34 C.F.R. Part 106 (implementing regulations); 29 U.S.C. § 794 (disability), 34 C.F.R. Part 104 (implementing regulations).

25-page letter  + 62 endnotes from Catherine E. Lhamon Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights
  • California and Rhode Island
    Learning Policy Institute
    Restarting and Reinventing School: Learning in the Time of Covid and Beyond
    Priority 10 Leverage More Adequate and Equitable School Funding…. the United States’ reliance on local revenues has produced one of the most unequal school funding systems in the industrialized world. 
    Linda Darling-Hammond, Abby Schachner, and Adam Edgerton
  • dual enrollment
    Teachers College Columbia University
    CCRC Community College Research Center
       The center is funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences.
    The Dual Enrollment Playbook: A Guide to Equitable Acceleration for Students
    By Gelsey Mehl, Joshua Wyner, Elisabeth A. Barnett, John Fink & Davis Jenkins
    This playbook examines nine dual enrollment programs in Florida, Ohio, and Washington that have narrowed or closed equity gaps in dual enrollment for Black, Latinx, Indigenous, and Pacific Islander students.
  • ArtsEdSearch
    A project of the Arts Education Partnership
    Student Achievement and Success: Arts education prepares students for success in college and beyond
    Effective Educators and School Leaders:Arts education supports effective instruction and engagement.
    Teaching and Learning Environment:Arts education improves school climate and culture, and supports community engagement.
    The Arts Education Partnership has been supported by the National Endowment for the Arts and the U.S. Department of Education since 1995 and is administered by Education Commission of the States;
    made possible through the generous support of AEP sponsors: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the Wallace Foundation.
  • Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis, Successful K-12 STEM Education, Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12, and English Learners in STEM Subjects
    The National Academies of Science Engineering Medicine
    The National Academies Press
    Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis, Jennifer Self: $50.00  e-book: $40.99
  • English Learners in STEM Subjects
    The National Academies of Science Engineering Medicine
    The National Academies Press
    English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives (2018),  Consensus Study Report  $55.00  e-book: $44.99
  • What Works Clearinghouse
                Institute of Education Sciences: We focus on the results from high-quality research to answer the question “What works in education?”   Intervention Reports    Practice Guides  Reviews of Individual Studies   Resources
  • career academies
    IES WWC What Works Clearinghouse
    Career Academies  Students in Career Academies take both career-related and academic courses and acquire work experience through partnerships with local employers.
                Reviewed Report: Dropout Prevention  Sept. 2015
  • dual enrollment
    IES WWC What Works Clearinghouse
    Dual Enrollment Programs
    Reviewed Research: Transition to College
  • seeing the impact
    Learning Policy Institute
    Learning in the Time of Covid-19   Eroding Opportunity: COVID-19’s Toll on Student Access to Well-Prepared and Diverse Teachers,  Michael A. DiNapoli Jr.,  Feb. 10,  2021,  part of a blog series, which explores evidence-based and equity-focused strategies and investments to address the current crisis and build long-term systems capacity
  • shortages
     Teacher Shortage Areas U. S. Department of Education   Data
  • City Connects
    Boston College  https://www.bc.edu/content/bc-web/schools/lynch-school/sites/cityconnects.html Celebrating 20 Years of Supporting the Whole Child        When you’re hungry, you can’t learn. When you’re homeless, you can’t do homework. When you’re worried, or sad, or angry — when mom is sick, or dad imprisoned — you can’t concentrate.Out-of-school challenges diminish a child’s ability to learn and thrive,  especially in high-poverty urban school districts. City Connects provides a clear, organized, and evidence-based strategy for schools to address these challenges — offering a hub of support that matches existing services to each student.
  • Communities in Schools
    Working directly in 2,500 schools in 25 states and the District of Columbia, Communities In Schools builds relationships that empower students to stay in school and succeed in life.  
                Equitable Education for an Equitable Future Video
  • National Wraparound Initiative
    nwi National Wraparound Initiative
    School of Social Work, Portland State University.
    Wraparound is an ecologically based process and approach to care planning that builds on the collective action of a committed group of family, friends, community, professional, and cross-system supports mobilizing resources and talents from a variety of sources resulting in the creation of a plan of care that is the best fit between the family vision and story, team mission, strengths, needs, and strategies.
    Special Guidance Report: Managing and Responding to Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    The NWI envisions a future in which all children and youth, regardless of the complexity of their needs, are connected to caring adults and have access to appropriate services and supports so they can be healthy, experience positive development, and live and thrive in their homes and communities.
  • grants for Full-Service Community Schools  bad link
  • per-pupil expenditure  data

    E Edunomics Lab  The Study of Education Finance      Georgetown University McCourt School of Public Policy   School Spending Data Hub  Our date hub provides a gateway to explore each state’s school-by-school spending data.

  • ways to improve
    AFT American Federation of Teachers    American Education Winter 2002 “Attracting Well-Qualified Teachers to Struggling Schools,” Cynthia D. Prince
  • three or more years
    Learning Policy Institute June 2016 Tara Kini and Anne Podolsk    Does Teaching Experience Increase Teacher Effectiveness? A Review of the Research
  • may create or exacerbate barriers
    Learning Policy Institute April 2018  Desiree Carver-Thomas  Diversifying the Teaching Profession: How to Recruit and Retain Teachers of Color 
  • national survey  
    CNBC  March 1, 2021  More teachers plan to quit 
  •   increased stress and increased working hours                                                                                                Center for State and Local Government Excellence  ICMA-RC                                                                              Survey Findings February 2021 REPORT PREPARED BY The Center for State and Local Government Excellence at ICMA-RC K-12 Public School Employee Views on Finances, Employment Outlook, and Safety Concerns Due to COVID-19    This report was prepared by Rivka Liss-Levinson, Ph.D. (Center for State and Local Government Excellence at ICMA-RC) and describes results of a survey conducted with Greenwald Research.
  • Keep Michigan Learning Powered by the Michigan Virtual Learning Continuity
    Teacher self-assessment tool & personalized PD playlist generator     Assess your readines                               Guide to selecting an LMS for K-12      You can use this repository to find, share, and rate both free and paid digital content options that can be used in your K-12 classroom.                                                                       Covid Responses                                                                                                                                                   Research on emergency remote learning in Michigan
  • Nevada Digital Learning Collaborative                 Statewide Collaborative for Digital Learning Resources  
    Digital Divide: It is time education made a shift to bridge the digital divide. The NV-DLC is working with county, state, and industry partners to provide the necessarily supports. Professional Development: There are many professional development opportunities being provided.                                                                                            The Path Forward Plan will build on the work of the DLC as well as leverage resources anticipated through the federal Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act to increase our capacity to successfully teach and learn at a distance.                                                                                                                                                                  Curriculum: Here are standards-aligned curriculum resources to support face-to-face and blended learning in your classrooms.   Pre-K-3   Subject areas indicate “content coming soon!” and provide link to Georgia Virtual Learning (Middle and High School)  Sample from To Kill a Mockingbird: Key Terms: Roll your mouse over each of the key terms below to reveal a definition. Master these terms to help in your understanding of the content in this module [each provides hyperlink to a definition: Novel  Antagonist  Conflict Foil Irony   Protagonist  Tone  Lead  Transitions  Thesis  Topic Sentence   Introduction Paragraph   Body Paragraph  Conclusion Paragraph   Development Sentence  Evidence  Analysis SentenceConclusion Sentence  Works Cited  In-Text Citation                                                  Content copyright 2020  Rights reserved.
  • Best for All Central                                                                                                                                                    TN Dept of Education                                                                                                                                              ELA Teaching Tennessee Winter Bootcamp  ELA Grades 3-8    ELA Math Science Winter Foundations Bootcamp PBS videos  No aligned standards 
  • self-paced course
    Wyoming Digital Learning Guidelines: written in response to educators’ requests from across the state and are based on the ISTE Standards for Students                                                                                                                     *GuidelineAre not mandatory and will not be assessed.                                                                                                   *Are intended to be used across all content areas to help students leverage technology to deepen and strengthen their learning experience.                                                                                                                                            *Include classroom application statements and curriculum integration examples.
  • evidenced-based toolkits                                                                                                                                       AIR Center on Great Teachers and Leaders at the American Institutes for Research                                            You need a partner who can help you capitalize on those unique strengths while using data, research, and stakeholder insights to tackle your hardest challenges head on.                                                                        Talent Development and Covid-19                                                                                                                           The Read 1 Framework: Are your state’s improvement programs ready to succeed in the schools that need them most? The READI Framework In Brief (1 minute read)   Services: Exploring Expert Consultation: Interested in exploring an evidence-based    strategy? We offer: short-term engagements to build your knowledge and expertise; Event presentations: Deliver a keynote or presentation at a conference or event; Workshops: Deliver and facilitate a knowledge-building workshop for a state or district team.  AIR funded by the U. S. Department of Education.                                                                                                                                                               Tools and Resources: We build user-friendly tools to help states use evidence-based strategies and practices in implementing ESSA… The GTL Center offers over 300 free tools and resources… Our evidence-based strategies are customizable, stakeholder-driven, and designed for impact.
  • Talent Development Framework                                                                                                                            AIR Center on Great Teachers and Leaders at the American Institutes for Research                                                      From 2012-2019, the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) was a national content center under the federally funded Comprehensive Center Network, providing support to state education agencies and districts in all 50 states. Today, AIR continues to operate the GTL Center and offer services across a range of core evidence-based talent management strategies. Discover what the new GTL Center has to offer.
  • Covid-19                                                                                                                                                                   AIR Center on Great Teachers and Leaders at the American Institutes for Research                                                   A Comprehensive, Systematic Approach to Address Talent Challenges During Covid-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted Black, Indigenous, and Latino students, and students from low-income households: early research confirms that trends in existing unequal access to high-quality instruction for students in these communities have increased in the shift to distance learning…. Based on the magnitude of the current challenge and what we know from existing research, we are encouraging states to approach COVID-19 talent challenges by using a comprehensive, data-driven approach rooted in four guiding recommendations… The GTL Center offers comprehensive tools and services to support states across multiple evidence-based, talent development strategies
  • Learning Policy Institute
    Taking the Long View: State Efforts to Solve Teacher Shortages by Strengthening the Profession  August 2018  Danny Espinoza, Ryan Saunders, Tara Kini, Linda Darling-Hammond
    Focuses on six evidence-based policies that states are pursuing to address their teacher shortages by strengthening, rather than weakening, their educator workforce
  • New England Consortium on Secondary Schools
    https://www.greatschoolspartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/DEW-FINAL-REPORT-12_20_r.pd INCREASING THE RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY OF THE EDUCATOR WORKFORCE: A CALL TO ACTION FOR LEADERS     August 2020
    The New England Secondary School Consortium (NESSC) is a regional partnership of state education agencies, leaders, and educators that promotes forward-thinking innovations in the design and delivery of secondary education across New England.All six New England states— Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont—work together to close persistent achievement gaps and promote greater educational equity and opportunity for all students.
    The NESSC is coordinated by the Great Schools Partnership. This report was supported by a grant from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation
  • Comprehensive Center Network    CC Network: Georgia  North Carolina  South Carolina
    Lessons Learned Around Reducing Inequitable Access to High Quality Teachers Bridget Johnson, EdD Karla C. Lewis, PhD October 2020
    website developed under a grant from the Department of Education through the Office of Program and Grantee Support Services (PGSS) within the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), by the National Comprehensive Center at Westat under Award #S283B190028. This contains resources that are provided for the reader’s convenience.
    The Region 6 Comprehensive Center (RC6) is operated by the SERVE Center at UNC Greensboro, and provides technical assistance to Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Assistance is tailored to the needs of the individual states while addressing the priorities of the U.S. Department of Education. The SERVE Center at UNC Greensboro is a university-based research, development, dissemination, evaluation, and technical assistance center. For nearly 30 years, SERVE has worked with educators and policymakers to improve education. Permeating everything we do is our commit tment to engaging collaboratively with our clients to do high quality, important, and useful work. This brief was prepared by the Region Six Center under Award #S283B190055 for the Office of Program and Grantee Support Services (PGSS) within the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) of the U.S. Department of Education and is administered by the SERVE Center at UNC Greensboro. The content of the presentation does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the PGSS or OESE or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. © 2020 SERVE Center at UNC Greensboro.
  • educators of Native American students
                Native American Collaborative
    The National Comprehensive Center (NCC) is one of 20 technical assistance centers supported under the U.S. Department of Education’s Comprehensive Centers program from 2019 to 2024. The NCC focuses on helping the 19 Regional Comprehensive Centers and state, regional, and local education agencies throughout the country.
    The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the Department of Education. However, the contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
    Teachers and Leaders
    Reinhardt, M.J., Moses, T., Arkansas, K., Ormson, B., Ward, & G.K. (2020). Teachers   and Leaders. Rockville, MD: National Comprehensive Center at Westat.
    Learning across the disciplines (e.g., mathematics, science, art) can be enhanced for all students by grounding learning in historical and cultural (Western and Native) knowledge and context. The survival of Native knowledge in the United States depends on the leadership and teaching skills of many traditional and non-traditional educators. The Native knowledge systems that were in place and thriving in a pre-colonial context produced the great thinkers and problem solvers that were well suited to cultures and geographies of Native peoples. Though these systems have since been disrupted, Native knowledge is resilient and continues to provide theories, methodologies, and philosophies that remain relevant. Within this context, this brief explores ways in which state education agencies, local education agencies, tribal education departments, schools, and educator preparation programs can support teachers and leaders to preserve Native culture, knowledge, and language to improve the lives of Native children and youth….
  • CEEDAR Center
                UF University of Florida         
                22 participating states
    Every Student Deserves an Equitable Opportunity to Succeed: We Help States and Institutes of Higher Learning
    OSEP  Attract Prepare Retain Resources
    Practice-Based Learning Opportunities
    Family Guide to At Home Learning
    Our Partners: University of Florida,  AIR (American Institute for Research),  Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
    Other Collaborators    
  • Education shortages in special education    CEEDAR Center:  Shortage Toolkit   A Toolkit for Developing Local Strategies. The Toolkit is the result of a collaborative effort between the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) and the CEEDAR Center, and was funded in part by the Office of Special Education Programs at the U.S. Department of Education.                                                                 Other Collaborators
  • attracting, preparing, and retaining
      Ideas That Work
    Leverage Briefs:The leverage briefs are the culmination of OSEP’s Attract, Prepare, Retain: Effective Personnel for All Initiative and highlight 13 leverage points covering strategies recognized by various stakeholders as essential to addressing critical shortages in the special education workforce.
    If you would like to submit a video talking about what inspired you to become an educator, share an innovative approach you use or what motivates you to remain in the field, please let us know! 
    This website was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Eduation Programs (OSEP) contract No. GS-10F-0112J. The views expressed herein do not necessarily….
  • strong principals
    Wallace Foundation Knowledge Center 
    Wallace Staff and Board of Directors    
    Effective Principal Leadership:  A Wallace Perspective identifies five practices that are key to the work of effective principals.  January 2013
  • teachers of color                                                                                                                              https://edtrust.org/resource/if-you-listen-we-will-stay/

    If You Listen, We Will Stay  Education Trust resourc, Sept. 25, 2019, Davis Dixon and Ashley Griffin
    A majority of the nation’s public school students are students of color, but less than 20% of teachers are teachers of color — and only 2% are Black men.

  • Marin County, California
    Learning Policy Institute
    Marin County: Leveraging Education and Public Health Partnerships to Support School Reopening Feb. 11, 2021: Naomi Ondrasek, Adam K. Edgerton, senior researchers for Learning Policy Institute. This brief describes reopening efforts in Marin County, which has reopened more than 85% of its schools since fall 2020, and documents the country planning process and mitigation strategies for personal protective equipment, ventilation, physical distancing, cohorting, symptom screening, and testing and tracing.
  • less than 20%
    Board of Trustees:  
    Series: Teacher Diversity in America
    BROWN CENTER CHALKBOARD: The diversity gap for public teachers in actually growing across generations by Michael Hansen and Diana Quintero March 7, 2019
  • Connecticut
    SDE Board   Ensuring Equity and Excellence for All Connecticut Student
    Our Promise to Our Students:Ensuring their non-academic needs are met so they are healthy, happy, and ready to learn. (Mental health, nutrition, after-school programs) Supporting their school and district in staying on target with learning goals. (Education Cost Sharing – ECS, Alliance Districts, Commissioner’s Network, School Choice) Giving them access to great teachers and school leaders. Making sure they learn what they need to know to succeed in college, career, and life.
  • Kentucky
    The Kentucky Board of Education (KBE) unanimously approved a resolution affirming its commitment to racial equity in Kentucky’s public schools during a special meeting on July 10, 2020
    Diversification of Kentucky’s Educator Workforce 3/1/2021
    Kentucky Department of Education  
    TEAM KENTUCKY: Cabinet for Economic Development  
  • Massachusetts
    Stay informed about Coronavirus—Covoid-19. Learn more…
    Teach Massachuetts  Teaching is a multifaceted profession that gives teachers the opportunity to exercise creativity, solve complex problems, and ultimately instill their passions in future generations. Teachers have a lasting impact on the world around us.
    Diversity in Education
    Influence 100
    The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education has launched Influence 100  to increase the racial and ethnic diversity of superintendents in Massachusetts, create more culturally responsive districts and leaders across the state, and promote better outcomes for students. Influence 100 includes a fellowship program for qualified educators who desire to move into the superintendent role in the next five years and support for school districts to become more culturally responsive and to engage in intentional strategy development and execution around diversifying their educator workforce.
    The InSPIRED* Fellowship:  Applications close at 11:59 pm EST on Friday, September 20th, 2019. Apply today!
  • North Carolina Teaching Fellows ProgramICYMI: The NCTF Commission extended awards to 118 individuals for the 2021 class of Teaching Fellows! This year, approx. 30% of finalists self-identified as a first-generation college student. We are so proud of these outstanding future teachers! 
  • Grow Your Own
         IDRA EAC-South
    With roots in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the four federally-funded equity assistance centers help school districts build capacity to confront educational problems occasioned by race, national origin, sex and gender, and religion.
    Grow Your Own Education Programs  Emphasizing Equity-based Approaches
    Equitable approaches and critical perspectives can combine the powerful roles of “homegrown” teachers, culturally-relevant curriculum, and social justice pedagogy in addressing achievement and opportunity gaps, especially for the nation’s woefully underserved, largely urban schools serving students of color.
    Literature Review Summary: Angela Valenzuela, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, developed this two-page summary of her literature review “Grow Your Own Educator Programs – A Review of the Literature with an Emphasis on Equity-based Approaches.”
       Disclaimer statement…
  • states and districts
    New America: We are a distinctive community of more than 150 thinkers, writers, researchers, technologists, and community activists who believe deeply in the possibility of American renewal.
    2020 Donors and Partners
    Grow Your Own Educators: A 50 State Scan of Grow Your Own Teacher Policies and  Programs,  Amaya Garcia, updated July 22, 2020
  • building infrastructure
                Grow Your Own Initiative
    The Future Depends on Teachers: Explores the teaching profession, learn how to earn your license and find a path to teaching that’s as unique as you are…
    Everything you need to become a teacher In one place—for free.
  • Educators Rising
    CSDE Connecticut State Department of EducationPress Release: 10/6/2020 Governor Lamont Announces Expansion of Program Encouraging High School Students to Become Teachers
  • NextGen Educators
    Press Release: 11/20/2020 Governor Lamont Announces Connecticut State Department of  Education and Central Connecticut State University Launch New Teacher Pipeline College Initiative
  • American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
    AACTE  Strategies that Promote Diversity, Equity and Inclusion in Educator Preparation Sept. 2020
    Select AACTE members featured within this Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Handbook share their strategies to diversify the profession
  • comprehensive virtual instructional coaching and mentoring program
    IFT A Union of Professionals  Illinois State Board of Education  IEA/NEA Education Association
                Illinois Virtual Instructional Coach and Building Mentor Program Oct 2020
  • Residency programs
    Learning Policy Institute
    The Teacher Residency: An Innovative Model for Preparing Teachers Sept. 15, 2016, Roneeta Guha, Maria E., Hyler, Linda Darling-Hammond
  • Tennessee Department of  Education
    newsroom: TDOE Announces $2 Million Grow Your Own Grant for Innovative, No-Cost Pathways to Teaching Profession  Aug. 3, 2020
  • research
                PMC National Library of Medicine
                National Institutes of Health
                COVID-19 Public Health Information CDC
    School Mental Health Is Not Just for Students: Why Teacher and School Staff Wellness Matters Nancy Lever, Erin Mathis, Ashley Mayworm
    Disclaimer: The presence of an article in PMC does not reflect an endorsement of, or concurrence with, the contents of the article by NLM.
  • self-care
    Self-Care Strategies for Educators During the Coronavirus Crisis: Supporting Personal Social and Emotional Well-Being   Christina Pate
    West Ed
    Addressed to educators who face the stresses of the pandemic and the resulting school closures and online service provision, this brief offers practical information and guidance on self-care. It describes self-care as paying adequate attention to one’s own physical and psychological health and wellness, and actively attending to one’s own health and well-being.
    The brief, produced by WestEd as part of a collection of Crisis Response Resources, builds on a growing research base about self-care, as well as WestEd’s extensive experience in education, public health, and wellness services.
    visit our COVID-19 Resources page.
  • PPE
                CDC Centers for Disease Control
                Protecting School Staff
    The information on this page provides an expanded focus on the health and safety of K-12 school staff. The strategies also provide workplace safety and health information for administrators related to protecting teachers, substitute teachers, paraprofessionals, janitorial/maintenance staff, office staff, school nutrition staff, school nurses/health professionals, school bus drivers and bus aides, coaching staff and athletic trainers, and music, choir, and performing arts teachers. This list is not exhaustive and addresses only some of the many jobs in schools. These strategies are meant to supplement—not replaceOperating schools during COVID-19: CDC’s Considerations, and any federal, state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which schools must comply.
  • Virginia
                Virginia Dept of Education
                Virginia is for Learners
    In an effort to support Virginia educators, the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) created a Continuity for Learning (C4L) Task Force to address the immediate needs of administrators and teachers in supporting students. The C4L Task Force consisted of teachers, leaders, and collaborating educational partners across Virginia. Over the course of three days, this C4L Task Force virtually convened over 120 members to create the recommendations in this document.
  • federal resources
    MHTTC Mental Health Technology Transfer Center: funded by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
    Responding to COVID-19 School Mental Health
    Public health emergencies such as COVID-19 have a significant impact on students and their families, educators and the school mental health workforce, as well as the school mental health system. Addressing the mental health impact on students, parents, teachers and school personnel has become more important and necessary than ever before. The MHTTC Network recognizes this, and we are available to assist the school mental health workforce by providing training and technical assistance to help during these trying times.
    Educator Well-Being Resource Collection
    Educator Well-Being MHTTC Products and Resources

    Ohanian note: The above bulleted items  were in bold in the DOE document. Hit on a bold item and the DOE text jumped to a site offering information. Alas, every time  you then try to return to the DOE handbook, you’re taken to p. 1. The only solution is to note the page number before clicking on a link. The Handbook footnotes appear separate from the bulleted items. They are offered below.


    1 Eva, A. (2018). “How to Inspire Students to Become Better Citizens” (2018). Greater Good Magazine: University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved from https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_to_inspire_students_to_become_better_citize ns

     2 National Association of Elementary School Principals. NAESP Advocacy Survey December 2020. Retrieved from https://www.naesp.org/news/naesp-releases-results-of-midyear-nationalprincipal-survey-on-covid-19-in-schools/.

     3 Quirk, A. (2020, July 28). Mental Health Supports for Students of Color During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/news/2020/07/28/488044/mentalhealth-support-students-color-coronaviruspandemic/#:~:text=Black%20people%20have%20long%20been,to%20be%20disciplined%20tha n%20treated.

     4 “Native and Indigenous Communities and Mental Health.” (2020). Mental Health America. Retrieved from https://www.mhanational.org/issues/native-and-indigenous-communities-andmental-health.

    5 Croft, M., Moore, R., & Guffy, G. (2019). Supporting the Mental Health and Well-Being of High School Students. ACT. Retrieved from: https://www.act.org/content/act/en/research/reports/actpublications/mental-health-report.html

    6 Boccanfuso, C., & Kuhfeld, M., (2011). Multiple Responses, Promising Results: EvidencedBased Nonpunitive Alternatives to Zero Tolerance. Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Child_Trends2011_03_01_RB_AltToZeroTolerance.pdf and Molyneux, T., (2015, Jan. 25). “Welcome Wave of Change: Positive Discipline and SEL in Schools”. Committee for Children. Retrieved from https://www.cfchildren.org/blog/2015/01/welcome-wave-of-change-positive-discipline-and-sel-inschools/.

    7 Korman, H., O’Keefe, B., & Repeka, M., (2020, Oct. 21). Missing in the Margins: Estimating the Scale of the Covid-19 Attendance Crisis. Bellweather Education Partners. Retrieved from: https://bellwethereducation.org/publication/missing-margins-estimating-scale-covid-19- attendance-crisis#Why%20aren’t%20students%20attending%20school?

    8 Children, Coronavirus, and the Digital Divide: Native American, Black, and Hispanic Students at Greater Educational Risk During Pandemic. (2020, Sept. 2). Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from: https://www.prb.org/coronavirus-digital-divide-education/. Lost in the Masked Shuffle & Virtual Void: Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness Amidst the Pandemic. Retrieved from: https://www.prb.org/coronavirus-digital-divide-education/. Lost in the Masked Shuffle & Virtual Void: Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness Amidst the Pandemic. (2020, Nov. 19). SchoolHouse Connection. Retrieved from https://schoolhouseconnection.org/lost-in-the-masked-shuffle-and-virtual-void/

    9 Harris, D.N, Liu, L., Oliver, D., Balfe, C., Slaughter, S., & Mattei, N. (2020). How American Schools Responded to the COVID Crisis. National Center for Research on Education Access and Choice: Tulane University. Retrieved from: https://educationresearchalliancenola.org/files/publications/20200713-Technical-Report-Harriset-al-How-Americas-Schools-Responded-to-the-COVID-Crisis.pdf

    10 Nowicki, J., Keller, B., Bowman, M., Jaynes, M., & Squitieri, A. (2020). Distance Learning: Challenges Providing Services to K-12 English Learners and Students with Disabilities During Covid-19. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao21-43.pdf.

    11 Nowicki, J. (2018, March). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-18-258.pdf

    12 Mitchell, F. (2020, Aug. 17). Covid-19’s Disproportionate Effects on Children of Color Will Challenge the Next Generation. Urban Wire: Children. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/covid-19s-disproportionate-effects-children-color-willchallenge-next-generation; and Truong, D. (2021, March 9). ‘School Wasn’t Even Important’: For Many Local Students, The Pandemic Has Meant A Mountain of Adult Responsibilities.WAMU: American University Radio. Retrieved from: https://wamu.org/story/21/03/09/localstudents-pandemic-adult-responsibilities/

    13 There is “evidence that empathic responses are dampened when the observer is of a different race than the observed, suggesting that teachers may be less likely to respond with empathy when a child of a race different to her own is exhibiting challenging behaviors or challenging home experiences.” Gilliam, W., Maupin, A., Reyes, C., Accavitti, M., & Shic, F. (2016). Do early educators’ implicit biases regarding sex and race relate to behavior expectations and recommendations of preschool expulsions and suspensions? New Haven, CT: Yale University Child Study Center, 1–18. Skiba, R., Chung, C., Trachok, M., Baker, T., Sheya, A, & Hughes, R. (2014). Parsing Disciplinary Disproportionality: Contributions of Infraction, Student, and School Characteristics to Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion. American Educational Research Journal. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= pp. 7, 23-24.

     14 Levin, S., Leung, M., Edgerton, A., & Scott, C. (2020). Elementary School Principals’ Professional Learning: Current Status and Future Needs. The Learning Policy Institute: Palo Alto, CA. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/productfiles/NAESP_Elementary_Principals_Professional_Learning_REPORT.pdf.

    15 Johnson, E., (1996). School Facilities: America’s Schools Report Differing Conditions. General Accounting Office. Retrieved from: https://www.gao.gov/assets/hehs-96-103.pdf.

     16 Nowicki, J., MacBlane, B., & Watsula, D. (2020, June). K-12 Education: School Districts Frequently Identified Multiple Building Systems Needing Updates or Replacements. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-20- 494?source=ra.

     17 How Does Indoor Air Quality Impact Student Health and Academic Performance? (2020, Aug. 12) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from: https://www.epa.gov/iaqschools/how-does-indoor-air-quality-impact-student-health-and-academic-performance.

    18 “Guidance for Reopening Buildings After Prolonged Shutdown or Reduced Operation” (2020, Sept. 22). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/building-water-system.html

    19 Kuhfeld, M., Tarasawa, B., Johnson, A., Ruzek, E., & Lewis, K. (2020). Learning during COVID-19: Initial findings on students’ reading and math achievement and growth. NWEA. Retrieved from: https://www.nwea.org/content/uploads/2020/11/Collaborative-brief-Learningduring-COVID-19.NOV2020.pdf

    20 Dorn, E. Hanckock, B., Sarakatsannis, J. & Viruleg, E. (2020). COVID-19 and learning loss – dsparities grow and students need help. McKinsey & Company: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/covid-19-andlearning-loss-disparities-grow-and-students-need-help.

    21 Kaefer, T. (2020). When Did You Learn It? How Background Knowledge Impacts Attention and Comprehension in Read-Aloud Activities. Reading Research Quarterly. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.344.

    22 Nickow, A., Oreopoulos, P., & Quan, V. (2020). The Impressive Effects of Tutoring on PreK12 Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence. (EdWorkingPaper: 20-267). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University: https://doi.org/10.26300/eh0c-pc52.

    23 Ibid.

    24 Pashler, H., Bain, P., Bottge, B., Graesser, A., Koedinger, K., McDaniel, M., & Metcalf, J. (2007). Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning. (NCER 2007-2004). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/1.

    25 Weiss, H., (n.d.) “Fifteen Years of Evaluation of 21st Century Community Learning Centers: A Driver for Program Quality and Capacity in the Field”, from Expanding Minds and Opportunities: Leveraging the Power of Afterschool and Summer Learning for Student Success. The Expanded Learning and Afterschool Project. Retrieved from: https://www.expandinglearning.org/expandingminds/article/fifteen-years-evaluation-21stcentury-community-learning-centers-driver. and Neild, R.C., Wilson, S.J., & McClanahan, W. (2019). Afterschool programs: A review of evidence under the Every Student Succeeds Act. Philadelphia: Research for Action. Retrieved from https://www.researchforaction.org/publications/afterschool-programs-a-review-of-evidenceunder-the-every-student-succeeds-act/.

    26 Ibid.

    27 McCombs, J., Whitaker, A. and Yoo, Paul. (2017). The Value of Out-of-School Time Programs. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from: https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE267.html.

    28Sloan McCombs, J., Augustine, C.H., Pane, J.F., & Schweig, J. (2020). Every Summer Counts: A Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes from the National Summer Learning Project. RAND. Retrieved from: https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/pages/everysummer-counts-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-outcomes-from-the-national-summer-learningproject.aspx.

    29 Drane, K. (2019, July 2). Why Deadly Cycles of Violence Spike in the Summer. Giffords. Retrieved from https://giffords.org/blog/2019/07/why-deadly-cycles-of-violence-spike-in-thesummer-blog/

     30 “New Results for Chicago-based Youth Violence Reduction Program” (2016). University of Chicago Urban Labs. Retrieved from: https://urbanlabs.uchicago.edu/news/a-fourth-article-fortesting

    31 WOW- Working on Womanhood. (2021). Youth Guidance. Retrieved from: https://www.youthguidance.org/wow/

    32 Chandra, S., Chang, A., Day, L., Fazlullah, A., Liu, J., McBride, L., Mudalige, T., Weiss, D., (2020). Closing the K–12 Digital Divide in the Age of Distance Learning. San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media. Boston, Massachusetts, Boston Consulting Group. This June 2020 report from Common Sense Media found that “approximately 15 million to 16 million K-12 public school students live in households either without an Internet connection or device adequate for remote learning at home; and of these students, approximately nine million live in households with neither an adequate connection nor an adequate device for remote learning. … The digital divide is a major problem for students in all 50 states and all types of communities but is most pronounced in rural communities and households with Black, Latinx, and Native American students.”

    33 U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee. (2017, September). America’s digital divide. Retrieved from https://www.jec.senate.gov/public/_cache/files/ff7b3d0b-bc00-4498-9f9d3e56ef95088f/the-digital-divide-.pdf

    34 Electronic Frontier Foundation. (2021, Jan 11). Retrieved from: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2021/01/fcc-and-states-must-ban-digital-redlining.

    35 Shapiro, E., & Newman, B. (2019, Nov. 19). “114,000 Students in N.Y.C. Are Homeless. These Two Let U.S. Into Their Lives.” The New York Times. Retrieved from: www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/11/19/nyregion/student-homelessness-nyc.html

    36 Hampton, K. N., Fernandez, L., Robertson, C. T., & Bauer, J. M. (2020, March). Broadband and Student Performance Gaps, James H. and Mary B. Quello Center, Michigan State UniversityRetrieved from: https://quello.msu.edu/broadbandgap/.

    37Anderson, M. and Kumar, M. (2019). “Digital divide persists even as lower-income Americans make gains in tech adoption.” Pew Research Center Fact Tank. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/05/07/digital-divide-persists-even-as-lower-incomeamericans-make-gains-in-tech-adoption/.

    38 Rafalow, M. H. (2018). “Disciplining Play: Digital Youth Culture as Capital at School.” American Journal of Sociology, 123(5), 1416-52. https://doi.org/10.1086/695766.

    39 Reich, J., & Ito, M. (2017). From good intentions to real outcomes: Equity by design in learning technologies. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.

    40 Levine, E., & Patrick, S. (2019). What Is Competency-Based Education? An Updated Definition. Aurora Institute.

    41 Darling-Hammond, L., Zielezinski, M. B., & Goldman, S. (2014). Using technology to support at-risk students’ learning. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

    42 Meyer, A., Rose, D. H., & Gordon, D. (2014). Universal design for learning: Theory and practice. Wakefield, MA: CAST Professional Publishing.

     43 Elliott, S. N., & Bartlett, B. (2016). Opportunity to Learn. In Oxford Handbooks Online Scholarly. Research Reviews. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

    44 Pfleger, R. H., Wilson, T. S., Welner, K. G., & Biblios, C. (2018). Measuring opportunity: Redirecting education policy through research. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 26(73). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.26.3525.

    45 Meloy, B., Gardner, M., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). Untangling the evidence on preschool effectiveness: Insights for policymakers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

     46 Burns, D., Darling-Hammond, L., & Scott, C. (with Allbright, T., Carver-Thomas, D., Daramola, E. J., David, J. L., Hernández, L. E., Kennedy, K. E., Marsh, J. A., Moore, C. A., Podolsky, A., Shields, P. M., & Talbert, J. E.). (2019). Closing the opportunity gap: How positive outlier districts in California are pursuing equitable access to deeper learning. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    47 LaCour, S. E., York, A., Welner, K., Valladares, M. R., & Kelley, L. M. (2017). Learning from schools that close opportunity gaps. Phi Delta Kappan, 99(1), 8-14.

    48 Baker, B. D., & Corcoran, S. P. (2012). The Stealth Inequities of School Funding. Washington DC: The Center for American Progress; Chingos, M. M., & Blagg, K. (2017). Do Poor Kids Get Their Fair Share for School Funding? Washington, DC: Urban Institute; and Morgan, I., & Amerikaner, A. (2018). Funding Gaps 2018: An Analysis of School Funding Equity Across the U.S. and Within Each State. Washington, DC: The Education Trust.

    49 Patrick, K., Socol, A., & Morgan, I. (2020) Inequities in Advanced Coursework: What’s Driving Them and What Leaders Can Do. Washington, DC: The Education Trust.

    50 Ford, D. Y., Wright, B. L., Sewell, C. J. P., Whiting, G. W., & Moore III, J. L. (2018). The Nouveau Talented Tenth: Envisioning W.E.B. Du Bois in the Context of Contemporary Gifted and Talented Education. The Journal of Negro Education, 87(3), 294-310.

     51 Jacob, B. (2007). The Challenges of Staffing Urban Schools with Effective Teachers. The Future of Children, 17(1), 129-153.

    52 Jackson, C. K., Johnson, R. C., & Persico, C. (2016). The effects of school spending on educational and economic outcomes: Evidence from school finance reforms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(1), 157-218. and Lafortune, J., Rothstein, J., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2018). School finance reform and the distribution of student achievement. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10(2), 1-26.

    53 Patrick, K., Socol, A., & Morgan, I. (2020) Inequities in Advanced Coursework: What’s Driving Them and What Leaders Can Do. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. https://edtrust.org/resource/inequities-in-advanced-coursework/.

    54 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. p. 82.

    55 National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2019). Position Paper: Promoting Rigorous Courses for Each Student. Reston, VA. p. 6.

    56 Benner, M. and Sargrad S. (2020). Creating Strong Building Blocks for Every Student: How Middle Schools Can Lay the Foundation for Rigorous High School Pathways. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2020/08/05/488493/creatingstrong-building-blocks-every-student/.

    57 National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2019). Position Paper: Promoting Rigorous Courses for Each Student. Reston, VA. p. 6.

    58 Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021). Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Current Employment Statistics survey (National) for all employees, local government education, seasonally adjusted. Data extracted on April 1, 2021. Retrieved from: https://beta.bls.gov/dataViewer/view/timeseries/CES9093161101

    59 Cardichon, J., Darling-Hammond, L., Yang, M., Scott, C., Shields, P. M., & Burns, D. (2020). Inequitable opportunity to learn: Student access to certified and experienced teachers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    60 Cardichon, J., Darling-Hammond, L., Yang, M., Scott, C., Shields, P. M., & Burns, D. (2020). Inequitable opportunity to learn: Student access to certified and experienced teachers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute; and Darling-Hammond, L., (2019). Investing for Student Success: Lessons from State School Finance Reforms. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    Success: Lessons from State School Finance Reforms. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    61 Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2011). Speaking of Salaries: What Will it Take to Get Qualified, Effective Teachers in All Communities. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

    62 Somers, M. A., & Haider, Z. (2017). Using Integrated Student Supports to Keep Kids in School: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Communities in Schools. New York, NY: MDRC.

    63 Parise, L. M., Corrin, W., Granito, K., Haider, Z., Somers, M. A., & Cerna, O. (2017). Two Years of Case Management: Final Findings from the Communities in Schools Random Assignment Evaluation. New York, NY: MDRC.

     64 Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021). Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Current Employment Statistics survey (National) for all employees, local government education, seasonally adjusted. Data extracted on April 1, 2021. Retrieved from: https://beta.bls.gov/dataViewer/view/timeseries/CES9093161101

    65 Knight, D. and Strunk, K. (2016). Who Bears the Cost of District Funding Cuts? Reducing Inequality in the Distribution of Teacher Layoffs. Educational Researcher, 45(7), 395-406. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0013189X16670899.

    66 Cardichon, J., Darling-Hammond, L., Yang, M., Scott, C., Shields, P. M., & Burns, D. (2020). Inequitable opportunity to learn: Student access to certified and experienced teachers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    67 Carver-Thomas, D. (2018). Diversifying the Teaching Profession: How to Recruit and Retain Teachers of Color. Palo Alto: CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/productfiles/Diversifying_Teaching_Profession_REPORT_0.pdf 68 Cherng, H.-Y. S., & Halpin, P. F. (2016). The importance of minority teachers: StudentTeaching Profession: How to Recruit and Retain Teachers of Color. Palo Alto: CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/productfiles/Diversifying_Teaching_Profession_REPORT_0.pdf

    68 Cherng, H.-Y. S., & Halpin, P. F. (2016). The importance of minority teachers: Student perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Educational Researcher, 45(7), 407–420; Irvine, J. J. (1988). An analysis of the problem of disappearing Black educators. Elementary School Journal, 88(5), 503–514; and Raudenbush, S. W., & Jean, M. (2014). To what extent do student perceptions of classroom quality predict teacher value added? In T. J. Kane, K. A. Kerr, & R. C. Pianta (Eds.), Designing Teacher Evaluation Systems. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

     69 Gershenson, S., Hart, C. Lindsay, C., and Papageorge, N. (2017). The Long-Run Impacts of Same-Race Teachers. Institute of Labor Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 10630. Bonn: Germany. Retrieved from: http://ftp.iza.org/dp10630.pdf.

     70 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), “Local Education Agency (School District) Universe Survey”, 2018-19 v.1a; “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey”, 2018-19 v.1a; “State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey”, 2018-19 v.1a. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/ccd/elsi/tableGenerator.aspx?savedTableID=138804.

    71 Podolsky, A., & Kini, T. (2016). How effective are loan forgiveness and service scholarships for recruiting teachers? Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    72 Guha, R., Hyler, M. E., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). The teacher residence: A practical path to recruitment and retention. American Educator, (41)1, p. 31-34, 44.

    73 Cardichon, J., Darling-Hammond, L., Yang, M., Scott, C., Shields, P. M., & Burns, D. (2020). Inequitable opportunity to learn: Student access to certified and experienced teachers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute; and Carver-Thomas, D. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher Turnover: Why It Matters and What We Can Do About It. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/teacher-turnoverreport.

     74 https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1121-2.htm